This is a favorable outcome because the actual rate of pay was less than the standard rate of pay. As a result of this favorable outcome information, the company may consider continuing operations as they exist, or could change future budget projections to reflect higher profit margins, among other things. With either of these formulas, the actual rate per hour refers to the actual rate of pay for workers to create one unit of product. The standard rate per hour is the expected rate of pay for workers to create one unit of product. The actual hours worked are the actual number of hours worked to create one unit of product.

If we compute for the actual rate per hour used (which will be useful for further analysis later), we would get $8.25; i.e. $325,875 divided by 39,500 hours. If the total actual cost incurred is less than the total standard cost, the variance is favorable. Labor yield variance arises when there is a variation in actual output from standard.

It is necessary to analyze direct labor efficiency variance in the context of relevant factors, for example, direct labor rate variance and direct material price variance. It is quite possible that unfavorable direct labor efficiency variance is simply the result of, for example, low quality material being procured or low skilled workers being hired. In case of low quality direct material, the direct material price variance will likely be favorable and in the later case, the direct labor rate variance will probably be favorable; both at the expense of direct labor efficiency variance.

- Direct labor efficiency variance pertain to the difference arising from employing more labor hours than planned.
- Before we go on to explore the variances related to indirect costs (manufacturing overhead), check your understanding of the direct labor efficiency variance.
- If the outcome is favorable, the actual costs related to labor are less than the expected (standard) costs.
- The labor efficiency variance is also known as the direct labor efficiency variance, and may sometimes be called (though less accurately) the labor variance.

Note that in contrast to direct labor, indirect labor consists of work that is not directly related to transforming the materials into finished goods. Examples include salaries of supervisors, janitors, and security guards. The articles and research support materials available on this site are educational and are not intended to be investment or tax advice. All such information is provided solely for convenience purposes only and all users thereof should be guided accordingly.

## Fundamentals of Direct Labor Variances

The combination of the two variances can produce one overall total direct labor cost variance. Possible causes of an unfavorable efficiency variance include poorly trained workers, poor quality materials, faulty equipment, and poor supervision. Another important reason of an unfavorable labor efficiency variance may be insufficient demand for company’s products. The labor efficiency variance is also known as the direct labor efficiency variance, and may sometimes be called (though less accurately) the labor variance. The standard number of hours represents the best estimate of a company’s industrial engineers regarding the optimal speed at which the production staff can manufacture goods.

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The same calculation is shown as follows using the outcomes of the direct labor rate and time variances. In this case, the actual hours worked are 0.05 per box, the standard hours are 0.10 per box, and the standard rate per hour is $8.00. This is a favorable outcome because the actual hours worked were less than the standard hours expected.

This figure can vary considerably, based on assumptions regarding the setup time of a production run, the availability of materials and machine capacity, employee skill levels, the duration of a production run, and other factors. Thus, the multitude of variables involved makes it especially difficult to create a standard that you can meaningfully compare to actual results. Before we go on to explore the variances related to indirect costs (manufacturing overhead), check your understanding of the direct labor efficiency variance. The direct labor efficiency variance is similar in concept to direct material quantity variance.

## Labor efficiency variance definition

If direct materials is the cause of adverse variance, then purchase manager should bear the responsibility for his negligence in acquiring the right materials for his factory. The Purple Fly has experienced a favorable direct labor efficiency variance of $219 during the second quarter of operations because its workers were able to finish 1,200 units in fewer hours (3,780) than the hours allowed by standards (3,840). From the payroll records of Boulevard Blanks, we find that line workers (production employees) put in 2,325 hours to make 1,620 bodies, and we see that the total cost of direct labor was $46,500.

Suppose, for example, the standard time to manufacture a product is one hour but the product is completed in 1.15 hours, the variance in hours would be 0.15 hours – unfavorable. If the direct labor cost is $6.00 per hour, the variance in dollars would be $0.90 https://www.quick-bookkeeping.net/profitability-index-pi-formula-calculator/ (0.15 hours × $6.00). For proper financial measurement, the variance is normally expressed in dollars rather than hours. Figure 8.4 shows the connection between the direct labor rate variance and direct labor time variance to total direct labor variance.

If the exam takes longer than expected, the doctor is not compensated for that extra time. Doctors know the standard and try to schedule accordingly so a variance does not exist. If anything, they try to produce a favorable variance by seeing more patients in a quicker time frame to maximize their compensation potential. Typically, the hours of labor employed are more likely to be under management’s control than the rates that are paid. For this reason, labor efficiency variances are generally watched more closely than labor rate variances.